|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Most data on tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in Africa come from hospital-based and cross-sectional studies.To estimate the incidence of tuberculosis in HIV-infected children participating in an observational cohort.HIV-infected children in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, are followed in a prospective cohort. At enrollment, all children had a physical examination, CD4 lymphocyte counts, chest radiograph and a tuberculin test. Quarterly follow-up visits are organized. All patients with suspected tuberculosis undergo specific investigations including gastric aspiration and culture. All isolates are tested for susceptibility.From October 2000 to December 2003, 129 girls and 153 boys were recruited. Of children without a current or previous diagnosis of tuberculosis, 6.5% (13 of 199) had a tuberculin test result of >5 mm, compared with 17.5% of children (10 of 57) with current or previous tuberculosis (P < 0.02). Forty-eight children (17%) had a history of treated tuberculosis, and 27 children were being treated for tuberculosis at enrollment or during the first month of follow-up. Eleven children were diagnosed with tuberculosis after the first month of follow-up, and the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection was confirmed in 7 cases. Of 5 tested isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 3 were resistant to at least 1 antitubercular drug.Cumulative incidence of tuberculosis was 2060/100,000 at 12 months, 3390/100,000 at 2 years and 5930/100,000 at 3 years. The 3-year risk was 12,400/100,000 in immunocompromised children (CD4 <15%) and 3300/100,000 in other children (P < 0.0001).The risk of tuberculosis among HIV-infected children in Côte d'Ivoire is strongly associated with the degree of immunodeficiency in HIV infection.