We report an investigation for 16 bacteria and viruses among 184 children hospitalized with pneumonia in Salvador, Brazil. Etiology was established in 144 (78%) cases. Viral, bacterial, and mixed infections were found in 110 (60%), 77 (42%), and 52 (28%) patients, respectively. Rhinovirus (21%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (21%) were the most common pathogens. Our results demonstrate the importance of viral and pneumococcal infections among those patients.