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Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, serotype distribution, and penicillin-susceptibility were monitored among children attending daycare centers in France from 1999 to 2006 to assess the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and antibiotic-reducing policies. Pneumococcal carriage remained stable. Immunization rates reached 68% in 2006. Serotype distribution shifted significantly from vaccine serotypes to vaccine-related and nonvaccine serotypes. Antibiotic treatments fell by 50%.