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A prospective >25-year follow-up study evaluated the outcome of patients hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection at <24 months of age. Questionnaires were sent to 51 study subjects and to population controls. Self-reported asthma was present in 30% of the former RSV patients, compared with 3.8% of controls. In adjusted analyses, RSV hospitalization was an independent risk factor of adulthood asthma.