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Microbiologic data are lacking regarding pediatric community-acquired peritonitis (CAP).We conducted a 2-year retrospective single center study. Consecutive children undergoing CAP surgery were included. Microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of peritoneal isolates were analyzed.A total of 70 children from 3 months to 14 years of age were included. A total of 123 bacterial isolates were analyzed. Escherichia coli was the predominant aerobic organism (51% of isolates); 54.8% were susceptible to amoxicillin whereas 90.3% were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate. Anaerobes accounted for 29% of isolates, and 94.3% of strains were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate and 68.5% were susceptible to clindamycin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was present in 6% of isolates and in 10% of children. The presence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin or to amoxicillin-clavulanate was the only independent risk factor associated with postoperative peritonitis.Microbiology of pediatric CAP is similar to adult CAP with a predominancy of E. coli and anaerobes. P. aeruginosa in peritoneal samples had no apparent influence on the outcome.