Temporal Trends in Otolaryngologic Findings among HIV-1-infected Children in a Population-based Cohort

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Otolaryngologic conditions are common among HIV-1-infected children. In this study, we provide data regarding prevalence of pediatric HIV-1 otolaryngologic manifestations in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART).


We conducted population-based, prospective, multicenter pediatric HIV-1 surveillance among 276 children with perinatally acquired HIV-1 from 1988 to 2009. All Center for Disease Control (CDC) mild, moderate and severe otolaryngologic conditions were evaluated.


CDC-defined, HIV-1-related otolaryngologic conditions among the 276 children were: 103, mild; 50, moderate and 20, severe. The majority [23.3% (24/103), 40.0% (20/50) and 50% (10/20)] of mild, moderate and severe diagnoses, respectively, occurred in the first year of life, with 53.4% (55/103), 66.0% (33/50) and 70% (14/20), respectively, occurring in the first 2 years of life. The most frequent diagnoses were otitis media [21% (58/276)] and oropharyngeal thrush [17.4% (48/276)]. There was a temporal decline by cohort in prevalence of mild and moderate otolaryngologic diagnoses which was significant for mild conditions: 90, pre-ART cohort and 13, ART cohort (P < 0.001) and moderate conditions: 47, pre-ART and 3, ART (P < 0.001).


In our study, many CDC-defined, HIV-related otolaryngologic conditions occur in the first 2 years of life. Over 22 years of longitudinal follow up, there was a significant decline in prevalence of CDC-defined otolaryngologic conditions by temporal cohorts when comparing pre-ART and ART eras. This finding supports early ART administration to decrease morbidity in HIV-1-positive infants and children as well as current US and World Health Organization guidelines to prevent early HIV disease progression.

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