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Premature infants have lower short-term immune responses to vaccination than term infants, but patterns of antibody persistence in preterm infants over longer periods are not well established. This study assessed the persistence of antibody response to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in formerly preterm versus term infants.In total, 100 preterm and 100 term infants received PCV13 with routine vaccines at ages 2, 3, 4 and 12 months. Serotype-specific anticapsular immunoglobulin G (IgG)–binding antibodies and opsonophagocytic activity were determined 1 and 2 years after the last PCV13 dose.At 1 and 2 years after the last vaccination (toddler dose), IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for all serotypes had declined from levels measured 1 month after the toddler dose but remained above pretoddler dose levels. IgG GMCs were significantly lower in preterm than term subjects for a majority of serotypes at both follow-up time points. IgG GMCs increased in both groups for some serotypes from the 1-year to 2-year follow-up, whereas others declined. Opsonophagocytic activity results supported the IgG results.The routine (3 + 1) vaccination schedule is likely to offer long-term protection against invasive pneumococcal disease in preterm infants and should be initiated regardless of gestational age or weight at birth, without delay of the toddler dose.