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This was a case-control study of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases spanning 5 years. Bloodstream infection (BSI) occurred in 12/207 subjects, with Candida spp.-4, Pseudomonas spp.-2 and Staphylococcal spp.-2 being predominant. No risk factors for BSI were identified. Exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics was common in both BSI and control patients. Prophylactic antimicrobials did not decrease the risk of BSI.