|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Acute otitis media is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. We examined etiologic changes in acute otitis media after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as routine immunization for Japanese children in 2014. Serotypes, resistance genotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities and multilocus sequence typing of pneumococcal isolates were also characterized.Otolaryngologists prospectively collected middle ear fluid from 582 children by tympanocentesis or sampling through a spontaneously ruptured tympanic membrane between June 2016 and January 2017. Causative pathogens were identified by bacterial culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction for bacteria. Serotypes, resistance genotypes, sequence types and susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobial agents were determined for pneumococcal isolates.At least 1 bacterial pathogen was identified in 473 of the samples (81.3%). Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (54.8%) was detected most frequently, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (25.4%), Streptococcus pyogenes (2.9%) and others. Pneumococci of current vaccine serotypes have decreased dramatically from 82.1% in 2006 to 18.5% (P < 0.001). Commonest serotypes were 15A (14.8%), 3 (13.9%) and 35B (11.1%). Serotype 3 was significantly less frequent among children receiving 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (P = 0.002). Genotypic penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae accounted for 28.7%, slightly less than in 2006 (34.2%; P = 0.393); the penicillin-resistant serotypes 15A and 35B had increased. Serotypes 15A, 3 and 35B most often belonged to sequence types 63, 180 and 558.Our findings are expected to assist in development of future vaccines, and they underscore the need for appropriate clinical choice of oral agents based on testing of causative pathogens.