Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Single Intravenous Doses of Ceftolozane/Tazobactam in Children With Proven or Suspected Gram-Negative Infection

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Background:Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing threat to children; thus new antibiotics are needed to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Ceftolozane/tazobactam is active against many Gram-negative pathogens and is approved for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in adults, but has not been evaluated in children.Methods:This phase 1, noncomparative, open-label, multicenter study characterized the pharmacokinetics (by noncompartmental analysis), safety, and tolerability of single intravenous doses of ceftolozane/tazobactam in pediatric patients (birth [7 days postnatal] to < 18 years of age) with proven/suspected Gram-negative infection or receiving perioperative prophylaxis ( NCT02266706). Patients were enrolled into 1 of 6 age groups to receive a single, age-based ceftolozane/tazobactam dose, with timed blood sample collection for determining plasma concentrations of ceftolozane and tazobactam. Safety and tolerability were also evaluated.Results:Thirty-seven patients received study drug; 34 were included in the pharmacokinetic population. Ceftolozane and tazobactam pharmacokinetic parameters were generally comparable for patients 3 months to < 18 years of age. Patients from birth (7 days postnatal) to < 3 months of age had lower clearance than older children, likely due to the immature renal function of these young infants. No deaths, study drug-related serious adverse events, or clinically significant laboratory abnormalities were observed after administration of ceftolozane/tazobactam.Conclusions:The doses evaluated in this study yielded ceftolozane/tazobactam exposure levels generally comparable with those in adults. Single doses of ceftolozane/tazobactam were well-tolerated, and no safety concerns were identified. These data informed pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models to derive pediatric dose recommendations for phase 2 ceftolozane/tazobactam clinical trials.

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