Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prophylaxis in Neurologic and Muscular Disorders in the Canadian Respiratory Syncytial Virus Evaluation Study of Palivizumab


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Abstract

Background:This study aimed to examine the risk of respiratory-related hospitalization in children with neurologic and muscular disorders (NMDs) who received respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in the Canadian RSV Evaluation Study of Palivizumab.Methods:Canadian RSV Evaluation Study of Palivizumab is a prospective registry of children who received ≥1 palivizumab injection among 32 Canadian sites. Demographic data were collected at enrollment, and respiratory events were documented monthly. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted to compare respiratory illness-related hospitalization (RIH) and RSV-related hospitalization (RSVH) among children with NMD and those prophylaxed for standard indications (SI) and complex medical disorders.Results:Group differences were found in enrollment age and weight, birth weight, household crowding, neonatal stay and supplemental oxygen requirement (all P < 0.05). RIH and RSVH incidences were 19.2%, 3.3% (NMD, n = 605); 6.0%, 1.5% (SI, n = 20,335), 9.4%, 1.6% (complex medical disorders, n = 4063), respectively. Children with NMD had a higher risk of RIH (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41–2.56; P < 0.0005) than those with SI. RSVH risk was greater in children with NMD compared to both the SI (HR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.38–3.72; P = 0.001) and complex medical disorders groups (HR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.55–4.84; P = 0.001). Children with more severe infantile onset NMD had a higher risk of RIH than those with general hypotonic disorders (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.68; P = 0.027) but not RSVH.Conclusions:Children with NMD who received palivizumab had a higher risk of both RIH and RSVH. Our results imply that all children with NMD, regardless of disease severity, are at risk for respiratory-related illness and RSV infection.

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