The Psychological Contribution of Nipple Addition in Breast Reconstruction

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


Two groups of consecutive patients from two different plastic surgical practice populations were evaluated to determine psychosocial differences between those who underwent nipple-areola reconstruction in addition to breast reconstruction (N = 33) versus those who did not undergo nipple-areola reconstruction in addition to breast reconstruction (N = 26). Psychological assessment consisted of a standardized symptom inventory (Brief Symptom Inventory) and a specially designed self-report questionnaire investigating reactions unique to surgeries for breast cancer and breast reconstruction. Both groups were equivalent sociodemographically, with the exception of age, where the nipple-added group was significantly younger (P = 0.035) than the nipple-not-added group. The nipple-added group reported significantly greater satisfaction with breast reconstruction with regard to overall satisfaction (P = 0.004), satisfaction with size (P = 0.02), satisfaction with softness (P = 0.0004), sexual sensitivity (P = 0.006), and satisfaction with nude appearance (P = 0.02). Of the nine scales of clinical symptomatology on the Brief Symptom Inventory, the nipple-added group showed more increased symptoms on seven of the nine. The nipple-added group was significantly higher on two of these scales, namely, paranoid ideation (P = 0.009) and anxiety (P = 0.03).

    loading  Loading Related Articles