This paper applies the anatomic concepts and data obtained from our animal experimental studies of the delay phenomenon to a series of clinical cases. Similar clinical results were obtained to those seen in Part I of our study when skin flaps were raised with and without a delay, when a tissue expander was used, and when the delay technique was extended to musculocutaneous flaps.
In each instance, the cutaneous perforators were identified with the Doppler probe to facilitate the delay of specific vessels rather than dividing those at random. Intraoperative arteriograms and venograms reveal that the choke arteries dilate and the anatomically unfavorable valved vein segments become regurgitant. The end result is the observation that at least one additional anatomic vascular territory can be added to the length of a flap with safety following a surgical delay.