Up until now, research on fat cells has been unable to prove their survival rate objectively in vivo. In this article, the first application of the cell surface marker PKH26 in the fat cells of rats is reported. In a study of 48 Lewis rats, this method enabled the objective stereometry of viable and necrotic grafts after variable follow-up times in groups of eight animals each. The best survival rate was 30.41 percent, and the best implantation site was the interscapular subcutis. During follow-up, a characteristic change in size of the viable fat cells matched the in vitro findings of various investigators. Because of the surface marking, it could be proved that the viable cells found after 6 months were transplanted cells that had undergone a cycle of fat deprivation and regaining. This is proof of the cell survival theory postulated by Peer in 1950.