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Adipose tissue injection as a free graft for the correction of soft-tissue defects is a widespread procedure in plastic surgery. The main problem in achieving long-term soft-tissue augmentation is partial absorption of the injected fat and hence the need for overcorrection and re-injection. The purpose of this study was to improve the viability of the injected fat by the use of interleukin-8. The rationale for the use of interleukin-8 was its abilities to accelerate angiogenesis and attract inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, providing the injected adipocytes more feeding vessels and a well-established graft bed to enhance their viability. Human adipose tissue, obtained by suction-assisted lipectomy, was re-injected into the subcutis in the scalp of nude mice. Interleukin-8 (0.25 ng) was injected subcutaneously to the scalp as a preparation of the recipient site 24 hours before the fat injection and was added to the fat graft itself (25 ng per 1 cc of injected fat). In the control group, pure fat without interleukin-8 was injected and no interleukin-8 was added for the preparation of the recipient site. One cubic centimeter of fat was injected in each animal in both the study and control groups. There were 10 animals in each group. The animals were euthanized 15 weeks after the procedure. Graft weight and volume were measured and histologic evaluation was performed. In addition, triglyceride content and adipose cell sizes were measured as parameters for fat cells viability. Histologic analysis demonstrated significantly less cyst formation in the group treated with interleukin-8. No significant differences were found between the groups with regard to graft weight and volume or the other histologic parameters investigated. No significant differences were demonstrated in adipose cell sizes and their triglyceride content. In conclusion, less cyst formation, indicating improved quality of the injected fat, can be obtained by the addition of interleukin-8. Further studies of various dosages of interleukin-8 and their long-term effect are required before these encouraging results could be applied clinically.