Surgical Management of Polyostotic Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia: Long-Term Outcomes and Predictors for Postoperative Regrowth

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Abstract

Background:

The mainstay of treatment for craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is surgical; however, optimal indications and techniques are poorly understood, particularly in polyostotic disease and McCune-Albright syndrome. This study investigated surgical indications and risk factors for recurrence in a large cohort.

Methods:

One hundred thirty-three craniofacial fibrous dysplasia subjects in a natural history study were evaluated. Radiographic studies, operative reports, and clinical records were reviewed.

Results:

Thirty-six subjects underwent 103 craniofacial procedures (mean, 2.8 operations per subject), with 13.5 ± 10.5-year follow-up (range, 0 to 39 years). The most common indication was craniofacial deformity (n = 61 operations), including 36 initial operations (59 percent) and 26 reoperations (41 percent). Mean time to reoperation was 3.4 ± 3.2 years (range, 0.3 to 13.3 years). Regrowth occurred after 42 operations (68 percent), and was more frequent after operations in subjects with McCune-Albright syndrome growth hormone excess [22 of 25 operations (88 percent)] than without growth hormone excess [15 of 36 operations (58 percent); p = 0.02]. Of 11 subjects with growth hormone excess, nine (82 percent) were undiagnosed at the time of their initial operation. Regrowth was more frequent after debulking procedures [31 of 38 (82 percent)] than after more aggressive reconstructions [nine of 20 (45 percent); p = 0.007]. Eleven subjects underwent treatment for aneurysmal bone cysts, with recurrence in one subject. Eleven subjects underwent biopsies and none had complications or regrowth.

Conclusions:

Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia regrowth and reoperation are common, particularly after debulking procedures. Outcomes are favorable for aneurysmal bone cysts and biopsies. McCune-Albright syndrome growth hormone excess is a risk factor for regrowth, and may be underdiagnosed in surgical patients. Surgeons should be aware of appropriate screening for endocrinopathies in fibrous dysplasia. These findings highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, and individualized care with long-term follow-up.

CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Therapeutic, IV.

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