Microbial Evaluation in Capsular Contracture of Breast Implants

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Background:Capsular contracture around breast implants is a severe and unpredictable complication experienced by up to 50 percent of patients after breast augmentation and reconstruction, and represents a major cause leading to reoperation. Several lines of evidence point to the involvement of subclinical infections and of bacterial biofilm formation.Methods:To reduce the incidence of capsular contracture following mammaplasty, the authors studied the correlation between contamination by exogenous and endogenous bacterial flora and the capacity to develop bacterial biofilm in mammary implants. The authors performed a microbiological study assessing microbial growth of swabs from breast skin, nipple-areola complex, and mammary gland biopsy specimens. Furthermore, the authors compared the results with the data resulting from cultural experiments from biopsy specimens of periprosthetic capsule, contracted or not, and from the surfaces of the relative prosthesis.Results:Between July of 2012 and July of 2013, a series of 65 female patients from the area of Naples, Italy, and its province, who underwent breast plastic surgery with the use of implants for aesthetic or reconstructive reasons, were included in the study. The authors noticed that there is a greater tendency for capsular contracture to form in oncologic patients who received radiotherapy, patients with precedent capsular contracture, and patients with cutaneous contamination by biofilm-producing microbes.Conclusions:Although all of the new technical procedures tend to reduce the amount of bacterial charge that comes into contact with the prosthesis at the time of its introduction, a minimal amount must always be taken for granted. This is the rationale for a preventative personalized antibiotic therapy.CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic, IV.

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