Rescue of Cardiopulmonary Collapse in Anterior Mediastinal Tumor: Case Presentation and Review of Literature

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Background:Anterior mediastinal tumors in pediatric patients may cause severe cardiorespiratory compromise and sudden collapse, especially when anesthesia or analgesic is required.Method:We report a 15-year-old boy with a huge anterior mediastinal tumor that caused complete obliteration of right pulmonary artery and left bronchus, that is, complete ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Cardiopulmonary collapse happened after meperidine injection, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was instituted.Results:We then put bronchial stents to restore airway patency and proceeded chemotherapy under ECMO support. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was removed 40 hours later. However, the patient died of neutropenic sepsis 9 days after admission.Conclusions:We emphasized the devastating consequences of anterior mediastinal tumor compression on the pulmonary artery and the contralateral-side bronchus and the use of ECMO as a rescue.

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