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This study aimed to investigate the impairment of pancreatic endocrine function and the associated risk factors after acute pancreatitis (AP).Fifty-nine patients were subjected to tests of pancreatic function after an attack of pancreatitis. The mean time after the event was 3.5 years. Pancreatic endocrine function was evaluated by fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide. Homeostasis model assessment was used to evaluate insulin resistance and islet β-cell function. Pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated by fecal elastase 1. Factors that could influence endocrine function were also investigated.Nineteen patients (32%) were found to have elevated FBG, whereas 5 (8%) had abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin levels. The levels of FBG, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide were higher in patients than in controls (P < 0.01). The islet β-cell function of patients was lower than that of controls (P < 0.01), whereas insulin resistance index was higher among patients (P < 0.01). Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes-related symptoms were found to be associated with endocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic exocrine functional impairment was found at the same time.Endocrine functional impairment with insulin resistance was found in patients after AP. Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes-related symptoms increased the likelihood of developing functional impairment after AP.