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To estimate the risk of malignancy in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP).We examined resected pancreata to compare the prevalence of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) in 28 cases of AIP and 30 cases of chronic pancreatitis not otherwise specified (CP-NOS). We also reviewed a cohort of 84 AIP cases.The mean age of the AIP cohort (57 years) was significantly higher than that of the cohort of CP-NOS (47 years) (P = 0.01). Twenty-three cases (82%) of AIP showed PanIN, and 7 cases (25%) showed grade 2 PanIN. Grade 3 PanIN was identified in one case of AIP. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of cases with high-grade PanIN lesions between the cases of type 1 as opposed to type 2 AIP. In comparison to CP-NOS, a comparable percentage of patients with AIP had PanIN (82% of AIP cases vs 63% of CP-NOS cases) (P = NS) and PanIN 2 (25% AIP vs 20% CP-NOS) (P = NS). Of the 84 AIP cases at our institution (mean follow-up, 49 months), 2 cases of pancreatic carcinoma were identified 6 and 10 years after the diagnoses of AIP.These findings raise concern that AIP is associated with an elevated risk of malignancy and should prompt additional studies.