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The Effect of Indomethacin in the Prevention of Post–Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis: A Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

Objectives

Acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a severe complication with substantial morbidity and mortality. Indomethacin has been identified to prevent this complication; however, the results using indomethacin have varied. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis on the efficacy of rectally administered indomethacin in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP).

Methods

A systematic search was performed in November 2012. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials (randomized controlled trials) in adult patients that compared rectally administered indomethacin versus placebo in prevention of PEP were included. Meta-analysis was performed using a fixed-effects model to assess the primary outcome (PEP) and secondary outcomes (mild or moderate to severe PEP) using Review Manager 5.1.

Results

Four randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria (n = 1422). The use of indomethacin near the time of ERCP demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in PEP (odds ratio [OR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34–0.71; P < 0.01), mild PEP (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.86; P = 0.01), and moderate to severe PEP (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.24–0.83; P = 0.01) as compared with placebo. The number needed to treat with indomethacin to prevent 1 episode of pancreatitis is 17 patients.

Conclusions

Rectal indomethacin significantly reduced the incidence of PEP. We recommend using indomethacin before or just after the procedure in patients undergoing ERCP.

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