To assess the effects of psychological stress on the antibody response to tetanus vaccine adjusting for cytokine gene polymorphisms and other nongenetic factors in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).Methods:
A family-based follow-up study was conducted in 119 spouses and offspring of community-dwelling patients with AD. Psychological stress was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and 1 month after the vaccination. Nutritional status, health behaviors, comorbidity, and stress-buffering factors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from six selected cytokines genotyped, and anti-tetanus toxoid immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The effects of stress and other potential confounders were assessed by mixed models that account for familial correlations.Results:
The baseline PSS score, the baseline CES-D score, the interleukin-10–1082 A>G SNP GG genotype, and the baseline anti-tetanus IgG were inversely associated with antibody fold increase.Conclusion:
Both psychological stress and cytokine gene polymorphisms affected antibody fold increase. The study provided additional support for the detrimental effects of psychological stress on the antibody response to tetanus vaccine.