Effects of Chronic Stress and Interleukin-10 Gene Polymorphisms on Antibody Response to Tetanus Vaccine in Family Caregivers of Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease

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To assess the effects of psychological stress on the antibody response to tetanus vaccine adjusting for cytokine gene polymorphisms and other nongenetic factors in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).


A family-based follow-up study was conducted in 119 spouses and offspring of community-dwelling patients with AD. Psychological stress was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and 1 month after the vaccination. Nutritional status, health behaviors, comorbidity, and stress-buffering factors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from six selected cytokines genotyped, and anti-tetanus toxoid immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The effects of stress and other potential confounders were assessed by mixed models that account for familial correlations.


The baseline PSS score, the baseline CES-D score, the interleukin-10–1082 A>G SNP GG genotype, and the baseline anti-tetanus IgG were inversely associated with antibody fold increase.


Both psychological stress and cytokine gene polymorphisms affected antibody fold increase. The study provided additional support for the detrimental effects of psychological stress on the antibody response to tetanus vaccine.

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