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To examine the independent and interactive effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on objective indices and self-reports of sleep.The sleep of 187 adults (41% black; mean age = 59.5 ± 7.2 years) was examined. Nine nights of actigraphy and two nights of inhome polysomnography (PSG) were used to assess average sleep duration, continuity, and architecture; self-report was used to assess sleep quality. Psychosocial factors, health behaviors, and environmental factors were also measured.Blacks had shorter sleep duration and lower sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy and PSG, and they spent less time proportionately in Stage 3–4 sleep, compared with others (p < .01). Lower SES was associated with longer actigraphy-measured latency, more wake after sleep onset as measured by PSG, and poorer sleep quality on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (p < .05).Blacks and perhaps individuals in lower SES groups may be at risk for sleep disturbances and associated health consequences.