Influence of Race and Socioeconomic Status on Sleep: Pittsburgh SleepSCORE Project
To examine the independent and interactive effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on objective indices and self-reports of sleep.Methods:
The sleep of 187 adults (41% black; mean age = 59.5 ± 7.2 years) was examined. Nine nights of actigraphy and two nights of inhome polysomnography (PSG) were used to assess average sleep duration, continuity, and architecture; self-report was used to assess sleep quality. Psychosocial factors, health behaviors, and environmental factors were also measured.Results:
Blacks had shorter sleep duration and lower sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy and PSG, and they spent less time proportionately in Stage 3–4 sleep, compared with others (p < .01). Lower SES was associated with longer actigraphy-measured latency, more wake after sleep onset as measured by PSG, and poorer sleep quality on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (p < .05).Conclusions:
Blacks and perhaps individuals in lower SES groups may be at risk for sleep disturbances and associated health consequences.