Life Satisfaction and Bone Mineral Density Among Postmenopausal Women: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations

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ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine whether and how global life satisfaction is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss.MethodsA total of 2167 women from a cohort of Finnish women born in 1932 to 1941 were included in the cross-sectional and 1147 women in the 10-year longitudinal part of the present study. Participants responded to a postal enquiry and underwent femoral BMD densitometry in 1999 (baseline) and 2009 (follow-up). During the follow-up, their life satisfaction was repeatedly measured using a four-item scale. Self-reported data on health, life-style, and medication were used to adjust the multivariate linear regression models.ResultsMean (standard deviation) femoral BMD decreased over the 10-year follow-up from 880 (125) to 846 (122) mg/cm2. In the multivariate model, life satisfaction (p = .028) and its improvement (p = .001) predicted reduced bone loss, whereas hospitalization due to depression predicted increased bone loss (B = −0.523 annual % change, standard error = 0.212, p = .014). These effects were independent of each other.ConclusionsEasily assessed global life satisfaction should be taken into account when effects of aging and prevention of osteoporosis as well as health promotion in postmenopausal women are considered.

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