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Nonpenetrating or blunt ocular trauma, orbital trauma and systemic trauma may cause a variety of posterior segment abnormalities. Blunt ocular trauma may cause damage to the retina (commotio retinae), retinal pigment epithelium (retinal pigment epithelial edema), choroid (choroidal rupture) and optic nerve (optic nerve evulsion) alone or in combination. Traumatic macular holes and retinal detachment or dialysis may also occur after blunt ocular trauma. Trauma to the orbital tissues adjacent to the globe can cause concussive forces with damage to multiple structures within the eye (chorioretinitis sclopetaria). Systemic trauma may result in diffuse retinopathy (Purtscher's retinopathy, shaken baby syndrome) or localized retinal abnormalities (whiplash retinopathy, fat embolism syndrome). Alterations in intravascular (Valsalva retinopathy) or intracranial pressure (Terson's syndrome) due to a variety of causes may result in preretinal or vitreous hemorrhage and associated visual loss. The purpose of this report is to review each of these entities of traumatic posterior segment abnormalities.