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To describe complications of the retina and vitreous occurring in children undergoing treatment for retinoblastoma and their clinical management.Retrospective analysis of Ret-Cam images of 206 patients with retinoblastoma treated at one center between 1996 and 2003. Images were studied for vitreoretinal features other than tumor persistence or recurrence. Specifically, complications such as vitreous, retinal, or choroidal hemorrhage, retinal detachment, retinal fold, vascular obstruction, and preretinal or subretinal proliferation were sought.Vitreoretinal complications of retinoblastoma therapy were identified in 14 patients (6.8%) All had heritable bilateral retinoblastoma. Group 5 Reese-Ellsworth disease was present in 50% (n = 7). All patients had systemic chemotherapy, 50% had external beam radiotherapy, and 64% had more than one local treatment method. Of the 14 patients with a complication, 4 eyes were enucleated for massive recurrence of tumor, 5 eyes were observed, and 5 eyes were treated successfully with vitreoretinal surgery for tractional or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.Vitreoretinal complications occurred in 6.8% of patients undergoing therapy for retinoblastoma. These included retinal tears, rhegmatogenous and tractional retinal detachment, subretinal fibrosis, vitreous traction bands, preretinal fibrosis, and pseudo-vitreous seeding. They were more often seen when systemic chemotherapy was combined with external beam radiation, cryotherapy, and local chemotherapy.