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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Watzke–Allen slit beam test (W/A test) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for diagnosing macular hole closure in gas-filled eyes during the early postoperative period.A retrospective comparative study was performed on 40 consecutive eyes of 40 patients with macular hole treated with vitrectomy. Macular hole closure was initially judged within 2 days after surgery with both the W/A test and SD-OCT. Final diagnosis was confirmed with SD-OCT after the gas disappeared. The concordance rate of initial diagnosis and final diagnosis using each method was evaluated.The W/A test could be done for the gas-filled eyes of all patients next day, whereas a diagnosable SD-OCT image could be obtained in 77.5% of patients. The concordance rate was 85% (34of 40 examined eyes) with the W/A test and 77.5% (31 of 40 examined eyes) with SD-OCT (P = 0.39, chi-square test). If a diagnosable result (image or response) could be obtained within 2 days after surgery, the accuracy of SD-OCT (31 of 31 eyes) was significantly better than that of the W/A test (31 of 40 eyes) (P = 0.026, chi-square test).The W/A test is more useful for diagnosing macular hole closure of a gas-filled eye than SD-OCT; however, SD-OCT gives more accurate information when diagnosable. Combining both methods could improve the accuracy and applicability.