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To compare functional and anatomical outcomes after idiopathic macular pucker removal between eyes that underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes that did not.In this multicentric, randomized clinical trial, 60 eyes of 60 patients affected with idiopathic macular pucker were enrolled. Thirty eyes underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy associated with ILM peeling (“ILM peeling group”), whereas 30 eyes did not undergo ILM peeling (“ILM not peeling group”). Retinal sensitivity, frequency of microscotomas, and all the other microperimetric parameters were tested by MP1 microperimetry. Best-corrected visual acuity was investigated with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart. Anatomical outcomes were analyzed with spectral domain optical coherence tomography.After a 12-month follow-up, the mean retinal sensitivity in the 4° central area showed a greater and faster recovery in the ILM not peeling group than in the ILM peeling group (P = 0.041). The number of absolute microscotomas (0 dB) within the 12° central retinal area was significantly higher in the ILM peeling group than in the ILM not peeling group (P = 0.044).The ILM not peeling group seems to show better outcomes than the ILM peeling group as measured by mean retinal sensitivity and number of microscotomas after a 12-month follow-up.