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To compare the efficacy of intraoperative intravitreal dexamethasone implant for macular edema secondary to diabetic retinopathy (DME), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and noninfectious posterior uveitis.A retrospective review of 62 patients (29 men and 33 women; mean age 51.19 ± 14.41 years; 65 eyes) was performed. Best-corrected visual acuity (in logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution), central foveal thickness, intraocular pressure, and postoperative edema-free period were postoperatively assessed up to 1 year. The preoperative and postoperative numbers of other intravitreal injections needed were compared.Best-corrected visual acuity gradually improved in the DME group (from 0.87 to 0.51) but failed to improve from Month 3 onward in the RVO and uveitis groups. Central foveal thickness decreased in all groups, especially in the DME group (from 550.93 to 338.10 μm). Edema-free period was longest in the DME group (19.34 ± 15.12 months), followed by the uveitis (12.91 ± 7.85 months) and RVO (8.50 ± 8.76 months) groups. Subjects in the uveitis group used more intraocular pressure–lowering agents (1.00 ± 1.27) than those in the DME (0.13 ± 0.49) and RVO (0.36 ± 0.79) groups. Increased intraocular pressure events were most frequent in postoperative Week 1, especially in the uveitis group.Vitrectomy combined with intravitreal dexamethasone implant for DME, RVO, and noninfectious posterior uveitis had a favorable clinical outcome.