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In this study the authors reveal a high incidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic vulvovaginal yeast infection in patients with recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Symptomatic yeast vaginitis in these patients presents frequently as a mixed infection with symptoms and signs of both clinical entities being present simultaneously. The authors diagnosed vulvovaginal candidiasis in 10 (29%) out of 35 patients with a history of recurrent bacterial vaginosis; vulvovaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis together were detected in 12 (34%) out of 35 women. Optimal therapeutic results usually require concomitant treatment of both candidal vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. The lack of specificity of signs and symptoms of vaginitis mandates that women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis, for each symptomatic recurrence, be examined and evaluated by the use of simple laboratory tests to determine a specific diagnosis. Failure to appreciate the frequency of candida superinfection leads to empirical and inappropriate therapy for bacterial vaginosis.