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Mycoplasma genitaliumis considered a cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. This organism also is a cause of genital infections in women, and has been detected in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United Kingdom and Denmark, although its prevalence is unknown in Japanese women.To determine the prevalence ofM. genitaliumin the cervices of women with cervicitis or adnexitis as well as in asymptomatic pregnant women in Japan.Two hundred women who attended obstetric and gynecologic clinics were recruited. Sixty-four women had cervicitis, 53 had adnexitis, and 3 had both. Eighty pregnant women were asymptomatic for infection. Cervical swab specimens were examined forM. genitaliumusing a polymerase chain reaction-based assay.Five (7.8%) of 64 women with cervicitis and 3 (5.7%) of 53 women with adnexitis were positive forM. genitalium.After exclusion ofChlamydia-positive women, 5 (8.8%) of 57 women with cervicitis, and 2 (4.1%) of 49 women with adnexitis were positive forM. genitalium.In none of 80 asymptomatic pregnant women, including aChlamydia-positive woman, wasM. genitaliumdetected. Overall, 7 (6.6%) of 106 women withChlamydia-negative genital infections were positive for theM. genitalium.This prevalence was significantly greater than that in asymptomatic pregnant women (P< 0.05).A significantly greater prevalence ofM. genitaliumwas demonstrated in Japanese women withChlamydia-negative cervicitis or adnexitis, compared with that in asymptomatic pregnant women. This study suggests thatM. genitaliummay play a pathogenic role in a portion of cases withChlamydia-negative genital infections.