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Impact of Number of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Doses on Genital Warts Diagnoses Among a National Cohort of U.S. Adolescents

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Abstract

Background

The impact of fewer than 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on genital warts is uncertain.

Methods

Using the Truven Health Analytics Marketscan administrative database, we compared rates of genital warts among women receiving 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of HPV vaccine. Females aged 9 to 18 years on January 1, 2007, who were continuously enrolled in the database through December 31, 2013, were included. Patients were assigned an HPV dose state (0, 1, 2, or 3) based on the last recorded dose. The exposure period began on January 1, 2007, or the date of the final HPV dose, and lasted until the first diagnosis of genital warts or December 31, 2013. Multivariable Poisson regression was performed to determine the risk of genital warts associated with vaccine doses.

Results

Among 387,906 subjects, mean age and exposure period were 14.73 and 5.64 years, respectively. The proportions of doses received were: 52.1%, 7.8%, 9.4%, and 30.7% for 0, 1, 2, and 3 doses, respectively. The rate of genital warts was 1.97/1000 person-years. Receipt of 0 or 1 dose was associated with more genital warts than 3 doses. The effectiveness of 2 doses following current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines was similar to 3 doses. The risk of genital warts rose with age.

Conclusions

Prevention of genital warts is higher with completion of 3 vaccine doses than with 1 dose, though 2-dose recommendations appear to provide similar protection. Prospective effectiveness studies of recommended 2-dose schedules against clinical endpoints including persistent infection, genital warts, and cervical dysplasia are necessary to ensure long-term protection of vaccinated cohorts.

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