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Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA and RNA were detected in a semen specimen of a syphilis patient with no genital or anal sores and no clinically evident orchitis. No nucleic acids were found in a urine sample of the same patient collected immediately before the semen sample. Exposure to the syphilis agent through semen could account for transmission episodes in the absence of direct contact with a syphilitic sore.