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The authors report their preliminary experience with the Charleston bending brace for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This brace holds the patient in the position of maximum side bend correction and is worn only at night.Patients in this prospective multicentered study met all the following criteria: skeletal immaturity (RisserO, 1 +, or 2+), curvature greater than 25° before bracing, no prior treatment, and greater than 1-year follow-up since initiation of treatment. There were 191 structural curves in the 139 patients. One hundred fifteen patients (83%) showed improvement or less than 5° change in curvature. Twenty-four patients (17%) demonstrated an increase in curvature greater than 5°. Based on these preliminary results, continued use of bending brace treatment at nighttime only is justified for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Patients with double curves should be observed closely for increase in compensatory curves.