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The mortality and causes of death in 115 patients (80 women), born 1902–1937, with untreated scoliosis were compared to the expected according to official Swedish statistics. Subgrouping for cause and onset of scoliosis was done. Fifty-five patients had died; 21 of respiratory failure and 17 of cardiovascular diseases. The mortality was significantly (P < 0.001) increased. The increased risk was apparent at 40–50 years of age. The mortality was significantly increased in infantile (P < 0.001) and juvenile (P < 0.01) scoliosis but not in adolescent scoliosis. The mortality was also increased in post-polio scoliosis, scoliosis combined with rickets and scoliosis of unknown etiology indicating an increased mortality in idiopathic scoliosis. Among the surviving patients anti-hypertunsive treatment was frequent (23 of 50).