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A prospective, consecutive cohort analysis of the regression of the incidence and intensity of back and posterior pelvic pain after delivery in pregnant women was done.To identify back and posterior pelvic pain from mid-pregnancy to 5 months after delivery and to illustrate differences between these two pain types.Chronic back pain may start during a pregnancy, and regression of unspecified back pain after delivery may be slow and incomplete. Few studies have distinguished back pain from posterior pelvic pain in pregnancy, and no study has presented follow-up data after delivery with respect to pain types.One hundred and sixty four of 368 pregnant women studied had back or posterior pelvic pain and were offered individual group physiotherapy and training. The women were observed until 5 months after delivery. Standardized clinical examination protocols and questionnaires were used.Posterior pelvic pain was experienced by 124 women, and back pain was experienced by 40 women during pregnancy. After delivery, however, back pain was more common. Pain intensity was higher among women with posterior pelvic pain during pregnancy, whereas after delivery pain intensity was higher among women with back pain. A correlation was found between the presence of high pain intensity during pregnancy and little regression of pain after delivery.One of every three pregnant women studied experienced posterior pelvic pain, and one of every nine women experienced back pain. Posterior pelvic pain was more intense during pregnancy, and back pain was more intense and more common after delivery. High pain intensity in pregnancy indicated a bad prognosis.