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Randomized controlled trial.To evaluate the effectiveness of an ergonomic and psychosocial intervention in reducing low back pain (LBP) among health care workers.LBP and injuries are reported frequently among health care workers worldwide. Improvement of person-transfer techniques is the preferred tool in the prevention of both. Although popular, to our knowledge, any effect has not been documented in controlled trials.Study participants were eldercare workers from 19 eldercare groups randomly assigned to the transfer technique, stress management, or reference arm. A total of 163 individuals (79% of the source population) participated in both baseline and follow-up after 2 years. Outcome was intra-individual change in rating of LBP during the past 3 and 12 months.We found no difference in LBP in any of the intervention arms over the study period.The study showed no effect of a transfer technique or stress management program targeting LBP. Thus, there is a need for discussing other priorities in the prevention of LBP among health care workers.