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Prospective longitudinal.Determine correlates of the peak height velocity (PHV) in girls with idiopathic scoliosis.Only identifiable retrospectively, the PHV is the most useful known maturity marker in idiopathic scoliosis. Clinically useful correlates are needed to make PHV timing helpful.A total of 24 immature girls with idiopathic scoliosis were followed with serial heights, sexual staging, skeletal ages, spinal radiographs, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF binding protein-3, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estradiol, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin levels. These markers were correlated to PHV timing.There were 14 girls who had identifiable growth peaks that averaged 10.5 ± 1.8 cm/y at age 11.7 ± 1 years. At the PHV, all girls were Risser 0 with open triradiate cartilages. On a skeletal age radiograph, digital uncapped phalangeal epiphyses were indicative of pre-PHV and fused epiphyses of post-PHV. Capped but unfused epiphyses were indeterminate. Tanner stage 1 for breast strongly indicates pre-PHV. Stage 3 for breast and pubic hair occurred at or after the PHV, and stage 4 always occurred after PHV. Higher IGF-1 and estradiol levels after PHV are potentially discriminatory.The PHV occurs during Risser 0 with open triradiate cartilages. If triradiate cartilages are open, then Tanner stages, IGF-1, estradiol levels, and the appearance of the epiphyses on a skeletal age radiograph are useful in determining status before or after PHV.