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Systematic review of randomized controlled trials.To determine the long-term effect of multidisciplinary back training on the work participation of patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.Chronic low back pain is influenced by multiple factors. Multidisciplinary back training represents one of the options to take this multiplicity into account. So far, only evidence of the short-term effectiveness of this approach in terms of work participation is available.Electronic databases were searched and the references of various articles were screened for relevant publications. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. All included studies were evaluated for their methodologic quality.Five of the studies had a low methodologic quality. All high-quality studies found a positive effect on at least one of the 4 outcome measures used. Based on our criteria, effectiveness was found for the outcome measures of work participation and quality of life. No effectiveness was found for experienced pain and functional status. The intensity of the intervention seems to have no substantial influence on the effectiveness of the intervention.In the long-term, multidisciplinary back training has a positive effect on work participation in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.