Translation and Validation Study of the Iranian Versions of the Neck Disability Index and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale

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Abstract

Study Design.

Cultural translation and psychometric testing.

Objective.

To translate and validate the Iranian versions of the Neck Disability Index (NDI-IR) and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS-IR).

Summary of Background Data.

The widely used the NDI and the NPDS scales have not been translated and validated for Persian-speaking patients with neck pain. This was to provide a validated instrument to measure functional status in patients with neck pain in Iran.

Methods.

The translation and cultural adaptation of the original questionnaires were carried out in accordance with the published guidelines. One hundred and eighty-five patients with neck pain were participated in the study. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet including the NDI-IR, the NPDS-IR, the Iranian SF-36, and a visual analog scale (VAS) of pain. To carry out the test-retest reliability, 30 randomly selected patients with neck pain were asked to complete the questionnaire booklet 48 hours later for the second time.

Results.

Cronbach α coefficient for the NDI-IR was 0.88 and for the 4 subscales of the NPDS-IR was found to be satisfactory (ranging from 0.74 to 0.94). The NDI-IR and the NPDS-IR subscales showed excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.90 to 0.97; P < 0.01). The correlation between the NDI-IR and the NPDS-IR subscales and functional scales of the SF-36 showed desirable results, indicating a good convergent validity (Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from −0.31 to −0.70). The correlation between the NDI-IR and the VAS was 0.71 and between the NPDS-IR subscales and the VAS ranged from 0.63 to 0.79 (P < 0.01).

Conclusion.

The Iranian versions of the NDI and NPDS are reliable and valid instruments to measure functional status in Persian-speaking patients with neck pain in Iran. They are simple and easy to use and now can be applied in clinical settings and future outcome studies in Iran and other Persian speaking communities.

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