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A randomized controlled trial.To examine the effects of the back school program on quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.There is a controversial debate whether back school program might improve quality of life in back pain patients. This study aimed to address this issue.One hundred and two eligible women were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The 2 groups including back school group who received the back school program plus medication (n = 50) and clinic group who received just medication (n = 52) were compared at 4 points in time. Data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up using the SF-36 questionnaire. Repeated measures analysis was performed to compare quality of life scores in 2 groups.Quality of life scores were significantly different between 2 groups throughout the study (P < 0.0001) indicating a better quality of life among intervention group.The back school program might improve the quality of life score in women with chronic low back pain.