Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Norwegian Version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia


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Abstract

Study Design.Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of a self-report questionnaire.Objective.To perform a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK) and to investigate its test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness among Norwegian-speaking patients with sciatica due to disc herniation.Summary of Background Data.The TSK is a self-report questionnaire developed to assess kinesiophobia, or fear of movement and/or (re)injury. To date, the psychometric properties of the TSK have not been demonstrated in patients with sciatica.Methods.The TSK was translated and back-translated according to recent guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. A principal components analysis and an evaluation of floor and ceiling effects were conducted. The TSK was tested for test-retest reliability, repeatability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Responsiveness was measured as standardized response means using a global change scale after 3 months as the external criteria.Results.In total, 466 patients with sciatica due to disc herniation were included. The TSK was easily comprehended. The principal components analysis yielded 3 factors. Component 1 showed a floor effect in which 152 (33.3%) of the patients achieved the lowest possible score. Repeatability according to Bland & Altman was 8, the coefficient of variance for paired measurements was 11%, and weighted kappa values for each item were moderate to substantial. Internal consistency by Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81. Correlations with the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), FABQ/work, and FABQ/physical activity were 0.50, 0.38, and 0.51, respectively. Responsiveness was low to moderate.Conclusion.The Norwegian version of the TSK was easily comprehended and demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability for the assessment of fear of movement and/or (re)injury in patients with sciatica due to disc herniation. However, responsiveness was low to moderate.

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