Seat Belt Syndrome With Cauda Equina Syndrome: Two Unique Cases in the Same Motor Vehicle Accident

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Abstract

Study Design.

Case report.

Objective.

To describe the surgical technique and outcome of 2 cases of lap-shoulder belt injury involving burst fracture at L5 and cauda equina syndrome (CES).

Summary of Background Data.

Lap-shoulder belts have largely replaced lap belts in the front seats of cars, and therefore the concept of seat belt injury needs re-evaluation.

Methods.

Two adults, the driver and front seat passenger in the same car involved in a collision, sustained lap-shoulder belt injury. One developed L5 Denis type A burst fracture and the other developed L5 Denis type B burst fracture. Both had CES. They were surgically managed by decompression of the spinal canal, which included removal of retropulsed fragments without impacting them. Both patients received short-segment transpedicle screws and rod system instrumentation without the fractured vertebra being included.

Results.

The percentage of preoperative degree of canal displacement of the retropulsed fragment was 60% in one patient and 55% in the other based on computed tomography. The mechanism of injury in both patients might be axial loading. After surgical intervention, the CES including lower leg weakness/numbness and bladder/bowel dysfunction clinically improved in both patients.

Conclusion.

Two adults in the same car involved in a collision were wearing lap-shoulder belts, and 1 had Denis type A burst fracture at L5 and the other had Denis type B burst fracture at L5. Both developed CES after the accident. Both patients had a good clinical outcome after surgical treatment.

Conclusion.

Level of Evidence: N/A

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