Predictors of Allogeneic Blood Transfusion in Spinal Fusion for Pediatric Patients With Idiopathic Scoliosis in the United States, 2004–2009

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Abstract

Study Design.

Analysis of population-based National Hospital Discharge Survey data collected for the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

Objective.

To examine the predictors of allogeneic blood transfusion (ALBT) in spinal fusion for pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

Summary of Background Data.

Spinal fusion for pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis is associated with major blood loss and often necessitates ALBT.

Methods.

The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis who underwent spinal fusion from 2004 to 2009, using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Then, patients who received ALBT were identified using the appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code. Patient demographics, surgical variables, and hospital characteristics were retrieved. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of ALBT in spinal fusion for pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

Results.

The odds ratio (OR) increased with increasing Elixhauser Comorbidity Score (score 1: OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.23–1.97; score 2: OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.69–2.93; score 3: OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.6–4.66; score ≥4: OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.93–9.06). Patients who underwent posterior approach or anterior and posterior approach surgical procedures were more likely to receive ALBT compared with those who underwent anterior approach surgery (posterior: OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.22–4.08; anterior and posterior: OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.69–6.63). Patients with a spinal fusion of 9 or more levels were more likely to receive ALBT compared with those with a spinal fusion of 4 to 8 levels (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05–1.85). There was no difference between patients with or without autologous-related blood transfusion (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.59–1.43).

Conclusion.

This study identified significant predictors of ALBT in spinal fusion for pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis. These factors need to be taken into consideration for patient blood management before surgery. In this study, autologous-related blood transfusion could not avoid ALBT.

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