Adjacent Segment Disease After Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Based on Cases With a Minimum of 10 Years of Follow-up


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Abstract

Study Design.Retrospective case-controlled study.Objective.To investigate the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) and the associated risk factors during a period of at least 10 years after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF).Summary of Background Data.ASD is a problematic sequelae after spinal fusion surgery. Few long-term follow-up studies have investigated ASD after PLIF; thus, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data available for the evaluation of postoperative changes associated with ASD are limited.Method.One hundred one patients were retrospectively enrolled. The minimum follow-up was 10 years after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative (2, 5, and 10 yr after surgery) Radiographs and MRI images were evaluated. Disc height, vertebral slip, and intervertebral angle were examined on radiographical images. Disc degeneration and spinal stenosis on MRI images were evaluated. Risk factors for developing early-onset radiographical ASD were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression analysis.Result.The degenerative changes in disc height, vertebral slip, and intervertebral angle on radiographs 10 years after surgery were found in 12, 36, and 17 cases, respectively, at the cranial-adjacent level and in 3, 6, and 11 cases, respectively, at the caudal-adjacent level. Increased disc degeneration and spinal stenosis worsening were observed in 62 and 68 cases, respectively, at the cranial-adjacent level and in 25 and 12 cases, respectively, at the caudal-adjacent level on MRI 10 years after surgery. Ten patients (9.9%) required reoperation, and 80% of revision surgeries were performed more than 5 years after the initial surgery. High pelvic incidence was a risk factor for developing early-onset radiographical ASD.Conclusion.The majority of the reoperations for ASD were performed more than 5 years after the initial lumbar fusion surgery, although the progression of radiographical ASD began in the early postoperative period. A high degree of pelvic incidence was a risk factor for developing early-onset radiographical ASD. Obtaining appropriate lumbar lordosis in PLIF is important for preventing ASD.Level of Evidence: 4

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