Currently, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not performed in the United States as part of routine clinical care of an HIV-infected adolescent patient. TDM is recommended to rule out subtherapeutic drug concentrations and to differentiate among malabsorption, drug interactions, poor adherence, or increased drug metabolism or clearance as possible causes of decreased drug exposure. The use of TDM is also considered to assist in finding the optimal dose of a drug in patients whose virus has shown reduced susceptibility to that drug. The dosing of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in adolescent patients with HIV infection depends on the chronologic age, weight, height, and the stage of sexual maturation. As a result of the limited data on the pharmacokinetics of ART during puberty, the transition of a dosing regimen from higher pediatric (weight and surface-based) to adult (fixed) range is not well defined. Developmental pharmacokinetic differences contribute to high variability in pediatric and adolescent patients and an increased frequency of suboptimal ARV exposure as compared to in adults. Individualized, concentration-targeted optimal dosing of ARV medications can be beneficial to patients for whom only limited dosing guidelines are available. This article describes three cases of the application of TDM in treatment-experienced adolescent patients whose ART was optimized using ARV TDM. TDM of ARV drugs is useful in managing the pharmacotherapy of HIV in adolescent patients and is well received by the adolescent patients with HIV and their families. Among others, the benefits of TDM provide evidence for adherence interventions and create grounds for enhanced education of the adolescent patient and involved adult caregivers about ART. Finally, TDM in adolescents provides valuable information about the clinical pharmacology of ART during puberty.