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Helper T cells and suppressor T cells have been generated in vitro that regulate the cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified syngeneic cells. B6D2F, helper cells generated to TNP-modified parental (P1) cells augment the CTL response to those P1-TNP-modified antigens but not to P2-TNP-modified antigens. The generation of these helper T cells requires the presence of splenic adherent cells and these helper T cells are radioresistant. A soluble factor can be obtained from the helper T cell cultures that can also augment the CTL response. The suppressor T cells generated in culture do not demonstrate the specificity observed with the helper T cells; however, they are antigen-dependent in their induction. Whether helper or suppressor activity is obtained depends upon the length of time cells are cultured in vitro.