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Of 213 renal allgroft recipients suspected to have had pulmonary tuberculosis, 132 had sputum examinations and 14 showed acid-fast bacilli. Of the remaining 118 patients, 25 had gastric aspirations, 18 had bronchoalveolar lavage, and 75 did not require further investigation because of spontaneous improvement or confirmation of an alternative diagnosis. While 9 of the 25 patients' gastric aspirate examination was positive, all the 18 who had bronchoalveolar lavage were negative for acid-fast bacilli. Eighty-one patients without expectoration had gastric aspiration directly and 14 showed acid-fast bacilli. Of the remaining 67 patients only 17 had bronchoalveolar lavage, of which three were positive for AFB and the rest did not require further testing for tuberculosis.A total of 106 patients had gastric aspiration. Acid-fast bacillus positivity was significantly more (P<.01) in patients with abnormal chest radiographs as compared with patients with normal chest radiograph results. We suggest gastric aspiration for AFB in all renal transplant recipients who have fever, scanty expectoration, and abnormal chest radiograph with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis.