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A male infant with neonatal iron storage disease, also known asneonatal hemochromatosis (NH), underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) at the age of 55 days. The native liver contained an incidental hepatocellular carcinoma. Scant iron accumulation was found in a biopsy specimen of the implanted liver on the seventh postoperative day (POD); successive biopsies showed increasing siderosis. On POD 62, the patient died of a cardiac arrhythmia. Autopsy showed siderosis at many sites, including the implanted liver. We discuss the possibility that hemochromatosis recurred in the liver allograft and review possible factors contributing to the siderosis.