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The first well-documented case of recurrent type III membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis after kidney transplantation is reported in this article. A 48-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of nephrotic syndrome and moderate renal failure. The renal biopsy showed double-contour images at light microscopy. Electron microscopy revealed electrondense deposits in the mesangium and in both the subepithelial and subendothelial sides of the basement membrane. Subepithelial deposits were sometimes hump-like and produced an irregular disruption of the lamina densa. A diagnosis of type III membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was suggested. The patient had a rapid decrease in renal function and received dialysis in 3 months. Three years later, he received a cadaveric kidney transplant, and subsequently recovered normal renal function. Proteinuria appeared after 13 months, and a biopsy of the graft demonstrated recurrence of the original disease. Seven years after transplantation, he returned to hemodialysis.